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Case laws under Indian constitution with brief explanation

  • Keshavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973):

  • Issue: Challenge to the 24th Amendment which sought to nullify the Golaknath case.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court held that the basic structure of the Constitution cannot be amended, ensuring the permanence of certain essential features.

  • Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978):

  • Issue: Challenge to the passport impoundment under Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court expanded the scope of Article 21, stating that the procedure established by law must be fair, just, and reasonable.

  • Golaknath v. State of Punjab (1967):

  • Issue: Challenge to the government's power to amend Fundamental Rights through constitutional amendments.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court, in a divided judgment, held that Fundamental Rights cannot be amended.

  • A.K. Gopalan v. State of Madras (1950):

  • Issue: Challenge to preventive detention under the Preventive Detention Act.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court narrowly interpreted Article 21, stating that personal liberty could be curtailed as long as the procedure was reasonable.

  • Indira Gandhi v. Raj Narain (1975):

  • Issue: Challenge to the election of Indira Gandhi on grounds of corrupt practices.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court declared the election void, emphasizing the importance of free and fair elections as a part of the basic structure.

  • Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan (1997):

  • Issue: Sexual harassment of women at the workplace.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court laid down guidelines for preventing and addressing sexual harassment at the workplace, filling a legislative vacuum.

  • M.C. Mehta v. Union of India (1986):

  • Issue: Control of industries causing environmental pollution.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court asserted the right to a healthy environment as a fundamental right under Article 21, setting the stage for environmental jurisprudence.

  • Mohammed Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum (1985):

  • Issue: Maintenance for a divorced Muslim woman under Section 125 of the CrPC.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court upheld the woman's right to maintenance, leading to debates on the uniform civil code.

  • R. v. Pem Selvam (1981):

  • Issue: Validity of confessions under TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Prevention Act).

  • Significance: The Supreme Court held that confessions made to police officers are inadmissible as evidence, ensuring protection against self-incrimination.

  • Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India (2017):

  • Issue: Right to privacy.

  • Significance: The Supreme Court, in a landmark decision, declared the right to privacy as a fundamental right, emanating from the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21.

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