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"Mastering Logical Reasoning: A Guide for CSEET Success"

Logical reasoning is the process of using rational thinking to make sense of things or to solve problems. It involves using facts, rules, and logic to draw conclusions or make decisions.

Here's a simple example:

Fact: All humans are mortal.

Rule: If X is a human, then X is mortal.

Conclusion: Therefore, if Sarah is a human, then Sarah is mortal.

In this example, we used the fact that all humans are mortal, combined it with the rule that if someone is human, they are mortal, and then applied it to the specific case of Sarah to draw a logical conclusion.

To solve logical reasoning problems, you can follow these general steps:

Understand the Problem: Read the problem carefully and make sure you understand what it's asking. Identify the premises (facts) and the conclusion.

Identify the Relationships: Look for relationships between the premises and the conclusion. This could be in the form of if-then statements, logical equivalences, or other patterns.

Use Valid Inferences: Apply valid inference rules to draw conclusions. Common inference rules include modus ponens (if A then B, A, therefore B) and modus tollens (if A then B, not B, therefore not A).

Eliminate Invalid Options: In multiple-choice questions, eliminate options that do not logically follow from the premises.

Practice: Regular practice with different types of logical reasoning problems can help improve your skills in identifying patterns and drawing logical conclusions.

Problem: All fish live in water. Goldfish are fish. Therefore, goldfish live in water.

Question: Is the conclusion logically valid based on the premises?

A) Yes

B) No

Problem:

All birds have feathers.

Penguins are birds.

Question: Based on the above premises, which of the following conclusions is valid?

A) Penguins can fly.

B) Penguins have feathers.

C) All birds can swim.

Ans B

The conclusion "Penguins have feathers" is valid based on the premises. Since all birds have feathers and penguins are birds, it logically follows that penguins have feathers.

Problem:

All humans are mortal.

Socrates is a human.

Question: Based on the above premises, which of the following conclusions is valid?

A) Raman is immortal.

B) Raman is mortal.

C) All mortals are humans.

Ans B

The conclusion "Raman is mortal" is valid based on the premises. Since all humans are mortal and Socrates is a human, it logically follows that Raman is mortal.

Problem:

If it is raining, then the streets are wet.

The streets are wet.

Question: Based on the above premises, which of the following conclusions is valid?

A) It is raining.

B) It is not raining.

C) The streets are dry.

Ans A