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CODING AND DECODING LEARNING SERIES - CSEET

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 1

In a certain code language, if the word 'PARTNER' is coded as OZQSMDQ, then what is the code

for the word 'SEGMENT’ in that language?

(1) TFHNFOU (2) RDFLDMS (3) RDELDMS (4) RDFEDNS (5) RGEFDNT

SOL:

Word: P A R T N E R Logic: -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Code: O Z Q S M D Q

Similarly, the code for SEGMENT is Word: S E G M E N T

Logic: -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Code: RDFLDMS (choice 2)

Example 2

In a certain code language, if the word RECTANGLE is coded as TGEVCPING, then how is the word RHOMBUS coded in that language?

(1) TJOQDWV (2) TJQNDWU (3) TJQODWV (4) TJQOEWU (5) TKLOPRS

SOL:

Word: RECTANGLE

Logic: +2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2 Code: T G E V C P 1 NG

Similarly, the code for RHOMBUS is Word: RHOMBUS

Logic: +2+2+2+2+2+2+2

Code: T J Q O D W U (choice 3)

Example 3

In a certain code language, if the word SPHERE is coded as EREHPS, then how is the word EXHIBITION coded in that language?

(1) NOTITBIHXE (2) NOITIDIHXE (3) NOITIBUIWE (4) NOITIBIHXE (5) IHXEBINOIT

SOL: Word S P H E R E

Logic: the letters in the given word are reversed. Code: E R E H P S

Similarly, the code for EXHIBITION, is Word: E X H I B I T I O N

Logic: the letters in the given word are reversed. Code: N O I T I B I H X E (Choice 4)

Example 4

In a certain code language, if the word REJECTION is coded as SGM1HZPWW, then how is the word MECHANIC coded in that language?

(1) NGFLFTPK (2) NGPLFTPK (3JNGFKFTPK (4) NGPTPKIL (5) NGFKPKIL

SOL:

Word: R E J E C T I O N

Logic: +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 Code: S G M I H Z P W W

Similarly, the code for MECHANIC is Word: M E C H A N I C

Logic: +1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8

Code: N G F L F T P K (choice 1)

Example 5

In a certain code language, if the word PLAYER is coded as AELPRY, then how is the word MANAGER coded in that language?

(1) AEAGMNR (2) AAGEMNR (3) AAEGMNR (4) AAEGNME (5) AAGEMRN

SOL: Word: PLAYER

Logic: the letters in the word are arranged in the increasing order of their value as in the alphabet.

Code: A E L P R Y

Similarly, the code for MANAGER is AAEGMNR. Choice is (3).

Example 6:

If 'UPDATES' is coded as ‘ARGEYIZ', then the word ‘ONLINE’ is coded as:

1) UPOUSI 2) UPOOSI 3) VPOOSI 4) TOOOSI 5) UQOORI

Solution:

Note that each vowel is replaced by the next vowel that appears in the alphabet and each consonant is replaced by a letter which is 'p' positions ahead of it in the alphabet series where 'p' is the position of the letter in the word.

The word ’UPDATES’ is encoded as:

U→A,

P + 2→R D + 3→G

A→E

T + 5→Y

E→I

S + 7→Z

For 'ONLINE', 'O’, T and 'E’ are replaced by 'U', 'O’ and T respectively.

The replacements for 'N', 'L' and ‘N’ are N + 2 = 'P', L + 3 = 'O’ and N + 5 = 'S’.

Hence, ONLINE is encoded as UPOOSI. Hence, the correct answer is option 2,

Example 7:

In a certain code ‘DESIGN’ is coded as ‘NSEIGD’, then what is the code for ‘SECOND’?

1) DCENOS 2) DONCES 3) DECNOS 4) DCEONS 5) DCENSO

Solution:

The encoded version of 'DESIGN' has the same number of letters as the original word. The letters are also the same but arranged in a different order. So, the cipher used is probably a rearrangement cipher.

D E S I G N

1 2 3 4 5 6 → original

6 3 2 4 5 1 → code

The 1st and the last letter are interchanged, also the 2nd and 3rd letter are interchanged. However, the 4th and 5th letters remain at the same position.

For 'SECOND', ‘S’ and ‘D’ interchange their positions, ‘E‘ and 'C replace their positions while ‘O' and 'N' stay as they are. Hence, the code for ‘SECOND’ is ‘DCEONS’.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Example 8:

In a certain code ‘READING’ is coded as ‘UWPOLEC’, and the code for ‘OPTION’ is 'JFALJE', then what is the code for ‘AIRPORT’?

1) PLOFJOA 2) ULUFJUA 3) JLUFJUA 4) PLUFJUA 5) PLUFJUL

Solution:

Observe that there is no particular pattern, but in both ‘READING’ and 'OPTION' the coded letter for ‘I’ and ‘N’ remains constant i.e. I is coded as ‘L’ and N is coded as ‘E’.

No other letter is common to the two words.

Hence, the pattern is that each letter is randomly coded as per the letter written in that order in the code.

Hence, for the word ‘AIRPORT’, obtain the coded letter for each alphabet from the words

READING and OPTION.

Hence, from ‘READING’, get the code for 'AIR' which is 'PLU' and from ‘OPTION’ get the code for letters P, 0 and T which is FJA.

Hence, the code for ‘AIRPORT’ is ‘PLUFJUA’.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

(D) Sentence Coding

In sentence coding, instead of individual words multiple sentences or statements of three to four words are coded and the aim is to decipher the sentence. Between two sentence, identify the common words if any. If any word is common, it has to repeat in the code in the code for the two sentences as well. Using this concept, it is easy to identify the code for a particular code. Proceed in this fashion using the code found and find the code for the rest of the words. Generally, there is no direct correspondence of coded words and their meaning.

Example 9:

If 'gty hre vfe mko’ means 'we are going out', 'vfe ser’ means 'get out1 and 'gty mko cbn’ means

'are you going' then what does 'hre gty mko' means?

1) are going out 2) we are out 3) you are out 4) we are going

5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

In the 1st and 2nd statement, the common word is 'out' and the common code word is 'vfe’. Hence, ‘vfe’ corresponds to 'out' and consequently, 'ser' corresponds to 'get'.

In the 1st and 3rd statement, the common words are 'are' and 'going’ and the common code

words are 'gty' and 'mko'. Hence, these two words represent 'gty' and 'mko' in no particular order. Hence, in the first word, the only code left is 'hre' and the only word left is 'we'. Hence, the code 'lire gty mko’ should represent the words 'we are going’.

Note that one cannot predict the order of the words but there is only one option which has 'we are going'.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4. Example 10:

In a certain code language, 'hi bi yi' means 'lemons are oranges’; 'ki bi hi' means 'oranges are sweet’ and 'yi di’ means 'sour lemons'.

Answer the following questions based on the above information.

Question 1:

What is the code for 'oranges’?

1) hi 2) bi 3) di 4) ki 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

In the 1st and 2nd statement, the common words are 'oranges’ and 'are' and the common code

words are 'hi' and 'bi'.

Hence, the 3rd term 'y\‘ should correspond to ‘lemons' and ‘ki’ should correspond to ’sweet'. But

the 3rd statement neither has 'oranges' nor 'are'.

Hence, the exact code for 'oranges' cannot be determined. Hence, the correct answer is option 5.

Question 2:

What is the code for 'lemons’?

1) hi 2) bi 3) ki 4) yi 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

In the 1st and 3rd statement, the only common word is 'lemons' and the only common code is 'yi'. Hence, 'lemons' should correspond to 'yi’.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Question 3:

What is the code for ‘oranges are sweet sour'?

1) hi bi yi hi 2) hi ki bi yi 3) bi hi di ki 4) yi di ki bi 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

Though the actual code for ‘oranges’ or 'are' is not known, it is known that these two words correspond to 'hi' and 'bi' in no particular order.

Hence, from statement 2, the code for 'sweet' has to be 'ki'. Finally, from statements 1 and 3, the code for 'sour' has to be 'di'. Hence, the only code which satisfies the condition is ‘bi hi di ki'. Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

(E)          Mixed Number Coding

In these questions, either numbers are assigned to a group of words or letters or vice- versa. On the basis of common words or some logic/pattern one can find the code for a particular word.

Solved Examples:

Example 11:

In a certain language '589' means 'smart little girl’, ‘152’ means 'intelligent smart boy' and '439' means ‘girl is good’, then what is the code for 'little'?

1) 4 2) 9 3) 5 4) 8 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

The number '5' and the word 'smart' are the terms common to the first two statements. Hence,

‘5’ should correspond to 'smart'.

Similarly, the number '9' and the word ‘girl’ are the terms common to the first and third

statement. Hence, ‘9’ should correspond to ‘girl’.

Now, in the first statement, ‘5’ and ‘9’ correspond to ‘smart’ and ‘girl’. Hence, the remaining number ‘8’ should correspond to 'little'.

Hence, the code for 'little' is ‘8’.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4. Example 12:

If Y = 75 and BAT = 69 then find the value of ‘FAT’.

1) 81 2) 67 3) 65 4) 82 5) 87

Solution:

Here, a single letter corresponds to a two-digit number. Hence, the relationship is based on some property of the letter Y.

Y is the 25th letter of the alphabet and 75 = 25 × 3.

Similarly, the position of B, A and T in the alphabet is 2, 1 and 20. Also, (2 + 1 + 20) x 3 = 69.

Hence, the logic is Letters

= (Sum of position of each letter) × 3

The position of F, A and T in the alphabet is 6, 1 and 20 Hence, the code for FAT is (6 + 1 + 20) × 3 = 18 + 3 + 60 = 81. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

(F)           Multiple Codes

In these questions, certain words are given along with their codes. The coding system applied may differ for each word. Decipher individual codes for different letters or words by comparing them with the codes given. Generally, there are two columns; one for words and the other for codes. This is essentially a "Match the code to the word” exercise. -

Example 13:

Some words are given in Column I while their respective codes given in column II. Find the code for the words and answer the questions that follow.

Column I Column II

All policemen are corrupt + # $ *

Some policemen are old $ % * -

Some young are corrupt & * % +

All corrupt are had + # *?

Solution:

Analysis of the information:

All the sentences have a common word 'are', hence its code is the symbol common to all the words i.e.

In the 1st and 3rd sentence, the common word (apart from 'are') is 'corrupt'. Since 'are' is denoted by 'corrupt' should be denoted by '+’.

Consider the 1st and 4th sentence. In both these sentences, 3 words are common and hence, 3 symbols are repeated.

Hence, in the 1st sentence, the symbol that is not common represents 'policemen'. Similarly, in the 4th sentence, the symbol that is not common represents 'bad'.

Hence, ‘$’ represents 'policemen' while '?' represents 'bad'. Hence, ‘#’ represents 'all'.

In the 2nd and 3rd sentence, the common word (apart from 'are') is 'some'. Since 'are' denoted by

‘*’, ‘some’ should be denoted by ‘%’.

Hence, ‘-’ represents 'old’ and ‘&’ represents 'young'.

Question 1:

What is the code for 'corrupt'?

1) # 2) * 3) % 4) + 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

From the analysis, the code for 'corrupt; is '+'. Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Question 2:

What is the code for 'All?

1) # 2) * 3) % 5) + 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

From the analysis, the code for ‘All’ is Hence, the correct answer is option 1. Question 3:

What does '$' stand for?

1) corrupt 2) young 3) policemen 4) are 5) Cannot be determined

Solution:

From the analysis, ‘$’ stand for 'policemen’.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

(H) Substitution

These are rotational questions where previous external knowledge can be used. They are generally framed as: if ‘A' is called ‘B’ is called 'B', 'B' is called 'C', 'C is called 'D’ and so on, what is the colour of XYZ. If the actual colour of XYZ is ‘B’, note that 'B' is to be called 'C'. Hence, the option corresponding to be 'C should be marked.

Example 14:

In a language, if ‘goat' is called ‘ant’, 'ant' is called 'tiger’, 'tiger' is called 'deer', 'deer' is called 'cow', then which of them is a carnivorous animal?

1) Tiger 2) Ant 3) Deer 4) Goat 5) Cow

Solution:

Using external knowledge, the only carnivorous animal among the options given is a Tiger. In the language given, a ‘tiger’ is called a 'deer'.

Hence, in this language, the carnivorous animal is 'deer'. Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Example 15:

If ‘white' is called 'green', 'red' is called 'black', 'black' is called 'white', 'green' is called ’blue', then what is the colour of a buffalo?

1) White 2) Black 3) Green 4) Red 5) Blue

Solution:

The colour of a buffalo is black and in the given language, 'black' is called 'white'. Hence, in the given language, the colour of a buffalo is 'white'.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

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