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Indian constitutions - short notes with MCQs


The Indian Constitution, adopted on January 26, 1950, is the supreme law of India. It is a remarkable document that governs the country and provides the framework for its political system. Some key features include:

  1. Preamble: The preamble declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic that ensures justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity to its citizens.

  2. Federal Structure: The Constitution establishes a federal structure with a strong center. It divides powers between the central government and states to maintain unity and diversity.

  3. Fundamental Rights: The Constitution guarantees fundamental rights, including the right to equality, freedom of speech, and the right to life and personal liberty.

  4. Directive Principles of State Policy: These are guidelines for the government to ensure social and economic justice and the welfare of the people.

  5. Parliamentary System: India follows a parliamentary system of government where the President is the ceremonial head, and the Prime Minister is the head of the government.

  6. Independent Judiciary: The Constitution establishes an independent judiciary with the Supreme Court as the highest court of appeal.

  7. Amendment Procedure: The Constitution can be amended to adapt to changing circumstances. Amendments require a special majority of the Parliament.

  8. Emergency Provisions: The Constitution provides for the declaration of a state of emergency in times of war, external aggression, or internal disturbance.

  9. Universal Adult Franchise: Every citizen over 18 years has the right to vote, making India one of the largest democracies globally.

  10. Scheduled Castes and Tribes: The Constitution includes provisions for the upliftment and protection of the rights of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. When was the Indian Constitution adopted?

  • A. August 15, 1947

  • B. January 26, 1950

  • C. October 2, 1942

  • D. December 6, 1956

Answer: B

2. What does the Preamble of the Constitution declare India to be?

  • A. Socialist republic

  • B. Monarchy

  • C. Democratic state

  • D. All of the above

Answer: D

3. What is the fundamental right related to equality in the Indian Constitution?

  • A. Right to freedom of speech

  • B. Right to life and personal liberty

  • C. Right against exploitation

  • D. Right to equality

Answer: D

4. What do Directive Principles of State Policy provide?

  • A. Mandatory laws

  • B. Guidelines for the government

  • C. Fundamental rights

  • D. Economic policies

Answer: B

5. Who is the head of the government in the Indian parliamentary system?

  • A. President

  • B. Prime Minister

  • C. Chief Justice

  • D. Governor

Answer: B

6. What is the highest court of appeal in India?

  • A. High Court

  • B. Supreme Court

  • C. Constitutional Court

  • D. District Court

Answer: B

7. How can the Indian Constitution be amended?

  • A. Simple majority in Parliament

  • B. Two-thirds majority in Parliament

  • C. Special majority in Parliament

  • D. Unanimous consent of states

Answer: C

8. Which part of the Constitution deals with emergency provisions?

  • A. Part I

  • B. Part III

  • C. Part XVIII

  • D. Part XI

Answer: C

9. What is the voting age in India?

  • A. 16 years

  • B. 18 years

  • C. 21 years

  • D. 25 years

Answer: B

10. Who is the head of the state in India?

  • A. Prime Minister

  • B. President

  • C. Chief Justice

  • D. Governor

Answer: B

11. What is the minimum voting age in India?

  • A. 16 years

  • B. 18 years

  • C. 21 years

  • D. 25 years

Answer: B

12. What does the term "Rajya Sabha" refer to in the Indian context?

  • A. Lower House of Parliament

  • B. President's house

  • C. Council of States

  • D. State Assembly

Answer: C

13. Which schedule of the Constitution deals with the division of powers between the Union and the States?

  • A. First Schedule

  • B. Second Schedule

  • C. Seventh Schedule

  • D. Tenth Schedule

Answer: C

14. What does the term "Lok Sabha" refer to in the Indian context?

  • A. Upper House of Parliament

  • B. President's house

  • C. People's Assembly

  • D. State Council

Answer: C

15. Who has the power to declare a state of emergency in India?

  • A. Prime Minister

  • B. President

  • C. Chief Justice

  • D. Governor

Answer: B

16. How many schedules are there in the Indian Constitution?

  • A. 20

  • B. 22

  • C. 25

  • D. 12

Answer: B

17. Which article of the Constitution deals with the right to freedom of speech and expression?

  • A. Article 15

  • B. Article 19

  • C. Article 21

  • D. Article 25

Answer: B

18. What is the term for the principle that no person can be subjected to harsher punishment than the one applicable at the time of the offense?

  • A. Ex post facto law

  • B. Habeas corpus

  • C. Writ jurisdiction

  • D. Jurisprudence

Answer: A

19. Who is the guardian of the Fundamental Rights in India?

  • A. Parliament

  • B. Judiciary

  • C. President

  • D. Prime Minister

Answer: B

20. What does the term "Jan Lokpal" refer to in the context of Indian governance?

  • A. Local self-government

  • B. Ombudsman to investigate corruption

  • C. Panchayati Raj

  • D. Special economic zones

Answer: B

21. What is the term for a system where the executive is derived from and accountable to the legislature?

  • A. Presidential system

  • B. Parliamentary system

  • C. Federal system

  • D. Unitary system

Answer: B

22. Who has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha in India?

  • A. President

  • B. Prime Minister

  • C. Speaker of the Lok Sabha

  • D. Chief Justice

Answer: A

23. What is the term for a system where power is divided between a central government and regional governments?

  • A. Unitary system

  • B. Federal system

  • C. Parliamentary system

  • D. Presidential system

Answer: B

24. Which fundamental right guarantees protection against arbitrary arrest and detention?

  • A. Right to equality

  • B. Right to life and personal liberty

  • C. Right against exploitation

  • D. Right to freedom of religion

Answer: B

25. What is the term for a situation where a person cannot be tried twice for the same offense?

  • A. Double jeopardy

  • B. Habeas corpus

  • C. Writ jurisdiction

  • D. Judicial review

Answer: A

26. Who appoints the Chief Justice of India?

  • A. President

  • B. Prime Minister

  • C. Chief Justice of India

  • D. Collegium system

Answer: A

27. What is the term for a situation where the court examines the constitutionality of governmental action?

  • A. Writ jurisdiction

  • B. Judicial review

  • C. Habeas corpus

  • D. Stare decisis

Answer: B

28. Which amendment of the Constitution lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 years?

  • A. 42nd Amendment

  • B. 44th Amendment

  • C. 50th Amendment

  • D. 61st Amendment

Answer: D

29. Who has the power to appoint judges of the High Court?

  • A. President

  • B. Chief Justice of India

  • C. Governor of the State

  • D. Prime Minister

Answer: A

30. What is the term for a system where there is a division of powers between a central government and regional governments, each having its own sphere of authority?

  • A. Unitary system

  • B. Federal system

  • C. Parliamentary system

  • D. Presidential system

Answer: B

31. What is the term for a legal order that requires a person to be brought before a court or judge, especially for investigation of a restraint of the person's liberty?

  • A. Habeas corpus

  • B. Writ jurisdiction

  • C. Judicial review

  • D. Stare decisis

Answer: A

32. Who is the custodian of the Constitution of India?

  • A. Prime Minister

  • B. Parliament

  • C. President

  • D. Chief Justice of India

Answer: C

33. What is the term for the power of the court to review and possibly nullify actions of the executive and legislative branches of government?

  • A. Judicial review

  • B. Habeas corpus

  • C. Writ jurisdiction

  • D. Stare decisis

Answer: A

34. What is the term for a system where the head of government is also the head of state?

  • A. Parliamentary system

  • B. Presidential system

  • C. Monarchical system

  • D. Unitary system

Answer: B

35. Which constitutional amendment is known as the "Mini Constitution of India"?

  • A. 42nd Amendment

  • B. 44th Amendment

  • C. 50th Amendment

  • D. 61st Amendment

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