Five-Year Plans were a series of social and economic development initiatives launched by the government. Here's a brief overview:
First Five-Year Plan (1951-1956): The focus was on agricultural development, with an emphasis on irrigation and power projects. It aimed to rehabilitate refugees, promote community development, and lay the foundation for industrialization.
Second Five-Year Plan (1956-1961): This plan marked a shift towards industrialization. It emphasized the development of heavy industries, including the establishment of the public sector. The plan also aimed at reducing the economic disparity among different regions.
Third Five-Year Plan (1961-1966): The focus was on self-reliance and the establishment of a more robust industrial base. Agriculture continued to be a priority, and there was an emphasis on technological advancements and the promotion of the public sector.
Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969-1974): This plan focused to achieve social justice and promote the "Growth with Stability" model. There was an emphasis on the removal of poverty and the achievement of self-sufficiency in food production. The plan was interrupted by the economic challenges posed by the Indo-Pak War of 1971.
Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-1979): This plan focused on poverty alleviation, employment generation, and the improvement of the agricultural sector. It also addressed the adverse effects of the oil crisis on the Indian economy.
Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980-1985): The plan targeted at achieving a more equitable distribution of income and reducing poverty. It focused on increasing agricultural and industrial productivity, along with investments in education and health.
Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985-1990): This plan focused on improving the efficiency and productivity of the agricultural sector, along with infrastructure development. There was an emphasis on social justice, employment generation, and poverty alleviation.
Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-1997): The plan aimed at economic reforms and liberalization to address balance of payments issues. It focused on industrialization, reducing public sector inefficiencies, and encouraging private sector participation.
Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002): The plan focused on social sector development, poverty eradication, and human development. It emphasized education, healthcare, and infrastructure development.
Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007): The plan aimed at a balanced and inclusive growth, with a focus on reducing regional disparities. It emphasized infrastructure development, education, and healthcare.
It's worth noting that after the Tenth Five-Year Plan, India shifted away from the traditional Five-Year Plan approach, and subsequent development initiatives have been formulated through different strategies and policies.