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Indian Constitution is federal or Unitary? - features with MCQs

The Indian Constitution is often described as "quasi-federal" or "federal with unitary features." This means that while it has elements of both federalism and unitarism, it leans more towards federalism. Let's explore this in more detail:

Federal Features:

  1. Division of Powers: The Constitution clearly divides powers between the central government and the state governments in the Seventh Schedule.

  2. Dual Government: There is a clear distinction between the powers of the Union (central government) and the states.

Unitary Features:

  1. Strong Centre: The central government has more powers compared to the states in certain matters.

  2. Single Constitution: There is a single constitution for the entire country, unlike a dual system where both the center and states have separate constitutions.

  3. Emergency Provisions: During emergencies, the central government gains more powers, and the federal structure becomes more unitary.


  1. Division of Powers: The Seventh Schedule of the Constitution divides powers into three lists - Union List (for the central government), State List (for state governments), and Concurrent List (powers shared by both).

  2. Single Citizenship: Indian citizens have a single citizenship applicable to the entire country.

Multiple Choice Questions:

  1. What is the primary feature of the Indian Constitution?

  2. Which list in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution is exclusive to the central government?

  3. How many lists are there in the Seventh Schedule?

  4. During emergencies, the Indian Constitution tends to become more:

  5. What type of citizenship does India have?

  6. The power to amend the Constitution lies with:

  7. Which feature makes the Indian Constitution quasi-federal?

  8. Which list in the Seventh Schedule is shared by both the central and state governments?

  9. In which situation does the Indian Constitution become more unitary?

  10. How many types of emergencies are mentioned in the Indian Constitution?

(Answers: 1-c, 2-c, 3-b, 4-b, 5-c, 6-b, 7-a, 8-c, 9-b, 10-c)

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